SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

The research on Transcendental Meditation is excellent. There is a strong connection between TM and reductions in everything from depression and PTSD symptoms to high blood pressure and heart mortality.

Dr. Pamela Peeke, host, Could You Survive, Discovery Health TV (USA)

National Institutes of Health Funds $24 Million in Research

  • Reduced risk factors for hypertension, diabetes, and obesity
    American Medical Association’s Archives of Internal Medicine
  • Increased lifespan
    American Journal of Cardiology
  • Reduced blood pressure in comparison with other procedures
    Ethnicity and Disease
  • Reduced heart failure
    Ethnicity and Disease
  • Reduced use of hypertension medication
    American Journal of Hypertension
  • Improved brain response to stress and pain
    Neuroreport
  • Reduced thickening of coronary arteries
    American Heart Association’s Stroke

More than 400 peer-reviewed research studies on the TM technique have been published in more than 160 scientific journals. These studies were conducted at more than 200 universities and research centers, including Harvard Medical School, Stanford Medical School, Yale Medical School, UCLA Medical School, and Medical College of Georgia.

A Slide Show of the most commonly cited studies:
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Reference List

STRESS REDUCTION

Reduced Risk of Atherosclerosis
Walton, K. G., B. Olshansky, E. Helene, and R. H. Schneider. Trials of Maharishi Ayurveda for Cardiovascular Disease: A Pooled Analysis of Outcome Studies with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness. Journal of Preventive Cardiology 4, no. 1 (2014): 615-23.
http://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149(02)022452/fulltext

Cardiovascular Health
Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in Adolescents and Adults through the Transcendental Meditation(®) Program: A Research Review Update. Curr Hypertens Rev. 2012 Aug;8(3):227-242.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510697/

Reduced Rates of Death, Heart Attach and Stroke
R. H. Schneider, C. E. Grim, M. A. Rainforth, T. A. Kotchen, S. I. Nidich, C. Gaylord-King, J. W. Salerno, J. M. Kotchen, and C. N. Alexander. Stress Reduction in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation and Health Education in Blacks. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 5, no. 6 (2012): 750-58.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23149426

Decreased Blood Pressure (Meta-Analysis)
Rainforth MV, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Anderson JW. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 2007 9(6):520-528.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2268875/

Improved Cardiovascular Health During Activity
Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Davis H. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2001 51(4):597-605
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11595248

Decreased Cortisol During TM
Jevning R, Wilson AF, Davidson JM. Adrenocortical activity during meditation. Hormones and Behavior 1978 10(1):54-60
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=jevning+davidson+meditation

Decreased Cortisol During Waking and Sleeping
Walton KG, Pugh N, Gelderloos P, Macrae P. Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: Preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine 1995 1(3):263-83.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9395623

Calmer Style of Physiological Functioning
Dillbeck MC, Orme-Johnson DW. Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist 1987 42(9):879-881 http://psycnet.apa.org/buy/1988-03610-001

Faster Recovery From Stress
Orme-Johnson DW. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 1973 35(4):341-349 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=orme-johnson+autonomic+stability

More Effective Recovery From Stress/Pain
Orme-Johnson DW, Schneider RH, Son YD, Nidich S, Cho Z-H. Neuroimaging of meditation’s effect on brain reactivity to pain. NeuroReport 2006 17(12):1359-1363
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2170475/

Decreased Trauma In Female Prison Inmates
Nidich S, O’Connor T, Rutledge T, Duncan J, Compton B, Seng A, et al. Reduced trauma symptoms and perceived stress in male prison Inmates through the Transcendental Meditation program: A randomized controlled trial. The Permanente Journal. 2016; 20(4):16-008.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5363900/

Decreased PTSD Symptoms 

Decreased Severity of Psychological Symptoms of PTSD
Barnes VA, Monto A, Williams JJ, Rigg JL. Transcendental Meditation® and psychotropic medication use among active duty military service members with anxiety and PTSD. Military Medicine 2016 181(1):56-63. doi:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00333.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26741477

Reduced Use of Psychotropic Medicine For PTSD
Barnes VA, Monto A, Williams JJ, Rigg JL. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on psychotropic medication use among active duty military service members with anxiety and PTSD. Military Medicine. 2016; 181(1):56-63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26741477

Rapid Reduction of PTSD in Congolese Refugees
Rees B, Travis F, Shapiro D, Chant R. Significant Reductions in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Congolese Refugees after 10 days Transcendental Meditation Practice. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2014; 27(1):112-115.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24515537

MENTAL WELLNESS

Effectiveness of TM For People With High Anxiety
Orme-Johnson, D. W., & Barnes, V. A. (2013). Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on Trait Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(5), 330-341.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107199

Decreased Perceived Stress, Increased Self-Efficacy, and Improved Mental and Physical Health In Women In Uganda
Goldstein, L., Nidich, S., Goodman, R., & Goodman, D. (2018) The effect of Transcendental Meditation on self-efficacy, perceived stress, and quality of life in mother in Uganda. Health Care Women Int. 2018 Mar 1:1-24. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2018.1445254.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Goldstein+Uganda+meditation

Decreased Anxiety and Increased Resilience In Students
S. Wendt, Hipps J., Abrams A., et al. “Practicing Transcendental Meditation in high schools: Relationship to well-being and academic achievement among students.” Contemporary School Psychology July 22 (2015).
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40688-015-0066-6

Decreased Mood Disturbances In Family Caregivers
Nidich S, Nidich RJ, Salerno J, Hadfield B, Elder C. Stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation program in caregivers: A pilot study. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care Perspectives. 2015;1(011):1-4.
https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/ianhc/international-archives-of-nursing-and-health-care-ianhc-1-011.pdf

Improved Coping Ability In Students
Nidich S, Rainforth M, Haaga D, Hagelin J, Salerno J, Travis F, et al. A Randomized Controlled Trial on Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Blood Pressure, Psychological Distress, and Coping in Young Adults. Am J Hypertens. 2009; 22:1326-31.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3128829/

Decreased Depression
Sheppard WD, Staggers F, Johns L. The effects of a stress management program in a high security government agency. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping. 1997; 10(4):341-50.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10615809708249308 (2007)

Increased Self-Actualization
Alexander CN, Rainforth MV, Gelderloos P. Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: a conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 1991 6(5):189-247.
https://search.proquest.com/openview/96282a627d15a9e40a80a4c5ea6ccba4/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1819046

Improved Cognitive Flexibility In Elderly
C. N. Alexander, Langer E. J., Newman R. I., et al. “Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with the elderly.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, no. 6 (1989): 950-964.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Alexander+Langer+meditation

Reduced Anger In Prison Inmates
Abrams AI, Siegel LM. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: a cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior 1978 5(1):3-20.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/009385487800500101

SUBSTANCE ABUSE

Reduced Alcohol, Nicotine, and Drug Abuse
Alexander, C.N., Robinson, P., & Rainforth, M. (1994). Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 11, 13–88.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J020v11n01_02?journalCode=watq20 (2010)

Treating Addictions With TM
Self Recovery: Treating Addictions Using Transcendental Meditation and Maharishi Ayur-Veda, The Haworth Press, NY 1994
https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=pCsiAwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=%E2%80%A2%09Self+Recovery:++Treating+Addictions+Using+Transcendental+Meditation+and+Maharishi+Ayur-Veda,+The+Haworth+Press,+NY+1994&ots=Ik4psferQT&sig=LKSL65FWlEBjXeZ_5gWnPxogwlY#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%A2%09Self%20Recovery%3A%20%20Treating%20Addictions%20Using%20Transcendental%20Meditation%20and%20Maharishi%20Ayur-Veda%2C%20The%20Haworth%20Press%2C%20NY%201994&f=false

BRAIN HEALTH: ENHANCED BRAIN FUNCTIONING

• Orme-Johnson DW, Haynes CT. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience. 1981;13:211-7.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=orme-johnson+haynes+EEG

• Dillbeck MC, Orme-Johnson DW, Wallace RK. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience. 1981;15(3):151-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7031000

• Nidich SI, Ryncarz RA, Abrams AI, Orme-Johnson DW, Wallace RK. Kohlbergian moral perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education. 1983;12(3):166-73.

• Orme-Johnson DW, Clements G, Haynes CT, Badawi K. Higher states of consciousness: EEG coherence, creativity, and experiences of the sidhis. In: Orme-Johnson DW, & Farrow, J., editor. Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation program: Collected Papers (Vol 1). Rheinweiler, Germany: MERU Press; 1977.

• Travis FT, Arenander A. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study of Effects of Transcendental Meditation Practice on Interhemispheric Frontal Asymmetry and Frontal Coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience. 2006;116(12):1519-38 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17145686

• Mahone MC, Travis F, Gevirtz R, Hubbard D. fMRI during Transcendental Meditation practice. Brain Cognition. 2018 Mar 2:123:30-33. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29505943

HEALTH ECONOMICS

Decreased Medical Care Utilization
Orme-Johnson, D.W. and R.E. Herron, An innovative approach to reducing medical care utilization and expenditures. The American Journal of Managed Care, 1997. 3(1): p. 135-144.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10169245

Fewer Hospital Admissions In All Disease Categories
D. W. Orme-Johnson. “Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation program.” Psychosomatic Medicine 49 (1987): 493-507.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3313489

Decreased Dr. Visits In All Age Categories
D. W. Orme-Johnson. “Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation program.” Psychosomatic Medicine 49 (1987): 493-507.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3313489

Decreased Medical Expenditures In Elderly
Herron R, Cavanaugh K. Can the Transcendental Meditation program reduce the medical expenditures of older people? A longitudinal cost reduction study in Canada. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality. 2005;17:415-442.
https://portals.mum.edu/Customized/Uploads/ByDate/2014/January_2014/January_21st_2014/Vol.8.CBE&Mgmt25000.pdf#page=343

EDUCATION

Improved Psychological Health In High School Students; Increased Resilience and Reduced Anxiety
S. Wendt, Hipps J., Abrams A., Grant, J.,Valosek, L., Nidich, S. Practicing Transcendental Meditation in high school students: relationship to well-being and academic achievement among students. Contemporary School Psychology, July 22 (2015). ISSN 2159-2020. DOI 10.1007/s40688-015-0066-6
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40688-015-0066-6

Reduced Teacher Burnout
Elder, Charles , Sanford Nidich, Francis Moriarty, and Randi Nidich. “Effect of Transcendental Meditation on Employee Stress, Depression, and Burnout: A Randomized Controlled Study.” The Permanente Journal 18, no. 1 (2014): 19-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7812/TPP/13-102
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24626068

Increased Graduation Rates and College Acceptnce, and Decreased Dropout Rates
Colbert, R. D., and S. Nidich. “Effect of the Transcendental Meditatation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School.” Education 133, no. 4 (2013): 495-501.
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/prin/ed/2013/00000133/00000004/art00012

Reduced Psychological Stress and Improved Coping Ability
Nidich S, Rainforth M, Haaga D, Hagelin J, Salerno J, Travis F, Tanner M, Gaylord- King C, Grosswald S, Schneider R. A randomized controlled trial on effects of the transcendental meditation program on blood pressure, psychological distress, and coping in young adults. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22:1326-1331
https://academic.oup.com/ajh/article/22/12/1326/182024

Improved Intellectual Performance
So KT, Orme-Johnson DW. Three randomized experiments on the holistic longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 2001 29(5): 419-440.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289601000708

LONGEVITY AND REVERSAL OF AGING

Stronger Immune System
Infante JR, Peran F, Rayo JI, Serrano J, Dominguez ML, Garcia L, et al. Levels of immune cells in Transcendental Meditation practitioners. International Journal of Yoga. 2014; 7(2):147-51.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4097901/

Reduced Mortality Rate
Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Rainforth MV, Salerno JW, Hartz A, et al. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons ≥ 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology. 2005;95(9):1060-4.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15842971

Increased Longevity
Alexander, C. N., Langer, E. J., Newman, R. I., Chandler, H. M., and Davies, J. L. (1989). Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57 (6): 950–964.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Alexander+Langer+meditation

Improved Cognitive Flexibility In Elderly
C. N. Alexander, Langer E. J., Newman R. I., et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, no. 6 (1989): 950-964.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Alexander+Langer+meditation

Younger Biological Age
Wallace RK, Dillbeck MC, Jacobe E, Harrington B. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 1982 16(1):53-58
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6763007

DNA: Improved Gene Expression
(Manuscript in preparation, Supaya Wenuganen, Ken Walton, R. Keith Wallace, Fred Travis, Meera Srivastava, and John Fagan, Department of Physiology and Health, Maharishi University of Management)

EMPLOYEE STRESS

Reduced Teacher Burnout
Elder C, Nidich S, Moriarty F, Nidich R, Effect of Transcendental Meditation on employee stress, depression, and burnout: a randomized controlled study. The Permanenta Journal 2014 18(1):19-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7812/TPP/13-102
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24626068

Leadership Development
McCollum B. Leadership development and self development: an empirical study. Career Development International. 1999;4(3):149-54
https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/13620439910262813

Decreased Anxiety and Depression In Government Personnel
Sheppard WD, Staggers F, Johns L. The effects of a stress management program in a high security government agency. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping. 1997;10(4):341-50.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10615809708249308

Increased Employee Effectiveness, Decreased Stress During Tasks, Increased Satisfaction, Improved Personal Relationships, Improved Sleep
Alexander CN, Swanson GC, Rainforth MV, Carlisle TW, Todd CC, Oates RM. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: a prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping 1993 6:245-262.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10615809308248383

Decreased Emotional Instability and Impulsiveness, Reduced Physical Complaints, Decreased Smoking
Haratani T, Hemmi T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on the mental health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health. 1990;32:656. [Japanese journal- not on pubmed]

IMPROVED QUALITY OF LIFE

Reduced Urban Violent Crime and Homicide
Dillbeck MC, Cavanaugh KL. 2016. Societal violence and collective consciousness: Reduction of U.S. homicide and urban violent crime rates. SAGE Open, 7(1), 1-16.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2158244016637891

Reduced Motor Vehicle Fatalities and Other Accidents
Cavanaugh KL, Dillbeck MC. 2017. The contribution of proposed field effects of consciousness to the prevention of U.S. accidental fatalities: Theory and empirical tests. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 24(1-2), 53–86. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/imp/jcs/2017/00000024/f0020001/art00003

Decreased Mood Disturbance In Family Caregivers
Nidich S, Nidich R, Salerno J, Hadfield B, Elder C. Stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation program in caregivers: A pilot study. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care Perspectives. 2015;1(011):1-4.
https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/ianhc/international-archives-of-nursing-and-health-care-ianhc-1-011.pdf

Improved Quality of Life In Older Breast Cancer Patients
Nidich SI, Fields JZ, Rainforth MV, Pomerantz R, Cella D, Kristeller J, Salerno JW, Schneider RH. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of Transcendental Meditation on quality of life in older breast cancer patients. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2009 8(3):228-234
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=nidich+meditation+breast+cancer

The Transcendental Meditation® (TM®) technique is available in Uganda only from African Women and Girls Organization for Total Knowledge-Uganda, Ltd., registered and licensed in May, 2011; and Institute of Health, Education and Sustainable Living, a trade name of IMS Uganda Ltd.